1. “Do you want to sell sweet soda for the rest of your life?” Or do you want to come with me and change the world? ”
In this famous phrase, thanks to which Steve Jobs managed to lure John Scully from PepsiCo, several persuasion techniques were used at once. First, simplification. A problem always has many causes, and it is rather difficult to solve it. Reality constantly makes people feel uncomfortable. Professional manipulators help them relax for a minute, ignoring difficulties and offering simple solutions. A deodorant, machine, or a certain brand of beer can make a person beautiful, popular, and successful. The Big Lie factor also plays a role here. As the great manipulator Adolf Hitler said: "People are more suspicious of a small lie than a great one." The third technique is also quite well known: reducing the choice to two options, one of which is obviously worse. Instead of letting a person think of a multitude of alternatives, manipulators give only two options to choose from.
2. "You really want to have healthy teeth?"
In pronouncing the phrase, the toothpaste seller uses two persuasion techniques. The first is the use of rhetorical questions. They are set up in such a way that they force one to agree with the speaker, because the answer is obvious. This is done in order to inspire confidence and the feeling that the seller and the buyer have the same outlook on life. The second technique, similar in meaning, is the use of “yes questions”. These do not have to be product related issues. The seller may ask: “The weather is nice, isn't it?” As soon as a person agrees with something, even small and insignificant, it will be much easier for him to agree with more important things, for example, say: “Yes, I buy it.” As well as “yes-questions”, there is humor when a person is in a good mood, more relaxed and ready to buy a product that he associates with pleasant emotions.
3. “This car is worthy of you”
People love flattery. They like it when they are considered special, significant and smart. In everyday life, you can use this by turning to a person with the phrase: “I don’t think that a person of such a level as you will agree to find time to help me ...” In advertising, this technique usually involves a direct appeal: “Do you value quality”, “You don't like to waste time for nothing. ” Sometimes, in order to arouse a sense of superiority in the audience, advertising, on the contrary, shows people committing stupid things. We like those who compliment us, and we tend to trust those we like. Therefore, it’s easier for them to convince us to buy something from them.
4. “But you are absolutely free”
The tricky move often used by manipulators is to assure a person that he has freedom of choice. People hate being constrained. Having asked another about a favor, the manipulator adds that he does not insist, but gives the right to choose. A study by Christopher Carpenter, in which 22,000 people took part, showed that this simple-looking technique is unusually effective: it increases the chances of success by 50%. Researchers asked people to donate money to charity, lend money for a bus ticket, and if after the request they added “but I do not insist” or “but you certainly do not have to help me”, people agreed much more readily. The words themselves are not as important as the main meaning of the statement: "you are absolutely free, I am not pushing you." The technique is especially effective in personal contact, and in writing and on the phone its effectiveness is greatly reduced.
5. “Only today, a 50% discount”
Technique affects the survival instinct, causing fear to miss something valuable. Researcher Noah Goldstein of Anderson School of Management calls it "the instinct to grab anything you can, or stay with nothing." In advertising, the appropriate slogans are often used: “Last chance!”, “Hurry, before it's too late.” According to statistics, in days of sales people spend 10% more on purchases, succumbing to panic. Under stress, a person loses the ability to think rationally. Well-known manipulation researcher Robert Cialdini calls this technique "creating scarcity." According to this principle, for example, the company TeeFury works, which sells geek t-shirts with a specific pattern for only one day. The use of fear as a manipulative technique is also possible in everyday life. For example, your boss may first hint to you that he plans to make a reduction in the near future, and then offer you to work overtime. The Science of Social Influence gives an example: a stranger approached people in a store and touched their shoulder. When they turned around in fright, they realized that this was just a blind person who wants to find out their time. After that, a man approached them with a request to donate a small amount. Those who survived the fright donated much more often than other buyers.
6. "This damn car is worth it!"
It is proved that light swear words at the beginning or at the end of a statement increase the degree of impact of speech on listeners. A study confirming this thesis was conducted in 2006 by the scientists Shearer and Sagarin. They divided people into groups and delivered identical speeches in front of them. The only difference was that the words “hell” were added to one of them. Speech with a curse had a greater impact on listeners. It seemed to the audience that the speaker was more convincing, self-confident, and aroused a sense of confidence in the product in them. The moderate use of swear words makes speech less formal and more human, removing the barriers between the speaker and the listener. In Russia, you can try a tougher option, as, for example, made by Artemy Lebedev Studio in an advertisement: "Euroset - prices are just ... oh."
7. “Why not?”
The ability to work correctly with an objection is probably the most important method of manipulation. You ask someone for a favor, they refuse you. What to do next? Ask: “Why not?” So you can translate a solid rejection into an obstacle format that can be overcome. The person who is asked this question takes the position of making excuses, because he must give logical reasons. Researchers who have addressed this issue provide several explanations for why this technique is so effective. First, perseverance plays a role. A person can find the strength to refuse once, but with each next question his confidence in his opinion is reduced. Emotional factors begin to act: guilt and sympathy. Secondly, this technique is associated with a state of cognitive dissonance - a feeling of discomfort from the presence in consciousness of two opposing points of view. A person wants to get rid of him as soon as possible, even by abandoning his opinion.
8. “Can I use your copy machine because I need to copy my papers?”
This technique is called “placebo information.” The manipulator reports some reason, which is actually not so significant. Langer’s research proves that if you name at least a visible reason, it increases your chances of success by 30%.